Group decision making

Below are the different methods to reach a group decision:

  • Unanimity – Everybody agree same thing
  • Majority – More than 50% people supports this
  • Plurality – Majority in a largest block
  • Dictatorship – despite of majority etc., one person decides

Facilitated Workshops

Workshops are the primary technique for quickly defining cross-functional requirements and reconciling stakeholder differences.

  • Joint Application Developer (JAD) is used in Software Industry – used to bring users and development team together to improve software development process
  • Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used in Manufacturing Industry – helps determine critical characteristics for new product development. QFD starts by collecting customer needs – called Voice of the Customer (VOC)

Scope Creep

A process of adding additional scope without addressing impacts on time, cost, resources etc. or may not be having customer approval also.


Tornado Diagrams/Plots/Charts and Sensitivity Analysis

You must have now got an idea why this diagram was named. This is basically a bar chart. This type of chart is mainly used for Sensitivity Analysis.

Sensivity Analysis
It is the comparison of relative importance of variables. This Analysis helps to determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project.


What is Co-location?

An organizational placement where team members are physically located close to each other. This improves communication, working relationships and productivity of team members.


Backward Pass and Forward Pass

Both are for the calculation for uncompleted portions of schedule activities.

  • Backword Pass – It uses late start dates and late finish dates.
  • Forward Pass – It uses early start dates and early finish dates

How to manage conflicts?

“Conflict should be addressed early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach.” If the conflict is not controllable via these, can continue with formal procedures (eg: disciplinary actions)

-PMBOK 4th Ed.


Decision Making by Project Managers

There are four types of decision making usually PMs use:

  1. Command
  2. Consultation
  3. Consensus
  4. Coin Flip

The four major factors that affect the type of decision style selection are:

  1. Time constraint
  2. Trust
  3. Quality
  4. Acceptance

Six basic steps of decision making are:

  1. Define problem
  2. Generate solution (brainstroming etc.)
  3. Ideas to Action (select best solution)
  4. Plan solution action (buy-in)
  5. Plan solution evaluation (post implementation evaluation)
  6. Outcome evaluation (how well the problem was solved)